Energy laws govern the use and taxation of energy, an indirectly observed quantity, both renewable, or energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished), and non-renewable, or a natural resource which cannot be produced, grown, generated, or used on a scale which can sustain its consumption rate, once depleted there is no more available for future needs.
Law is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior, wherever possible. These laws are the best primary authorities, or documents that establish the law on a particular issue, such as case decision or legislative act, in this case, related to energy. They could be caselaw, the set of existing rulings which made new interpretations of law and, therefore, can be cited as precedents; statutes, a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a state, city, or country; rules; regulations, administrative legislation that constitutes or constrains rights and allocates responsibilities; and edicts, an announcement of a law, often associated with monarchism. In contrast, energy policy, the manner in which a given entity, often government, has decided to address issues of energy development including energy production, distribution and consumption, refers to the policy, typically described as a principle or rule to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes, and politics of energy. Politics is a term generally applied to the art of science of running governmental or state affairs, including behavior within civil governments, but also applies to institutions, fields, and special interest groups such as the corporate, academic, and religious segments of society.
In the twentieth century, energy law focused mostly on the regulation of natural gas, a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, with up to 20 percent of other hydrocarbons as well as impurities in varying amounts such as carbon dioxide. However it was expanded to include other areas of energy regulation as well.
It also includes the legal provision for oil, gasoline, and “extraction taxes.” The practice of energy law includes contracts for sting, extraction, licenses for the acquisition and ownership rights, the area of law that governs the various forms of ownership in real property (land as distinct from personal or movable possessions) and in personal; property, within the common law legal system. It includes both oil, or any substance that is liquid at ambient temperatures and does not mix with water but may mix with other oils and organic solvents, and gas, both under the soil before discovery and after its capture, and adjudication regarding those rights.
The rule of capture, or law of capture is common law from England, adopted by a number of US jurisdictions, that establishes a rule of non-liability and ownership of captures natural resources including groundwater, oil, gas and game animals, while adjudication is the legal process by which an arbiter or judge reviews evidence and argumentation including legal reasoning set forth by opposing parties or litigants to come to a decision which determines rights and obligations between the parties involved.
Energy is big business in Australia. The Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association, known as APPEA, an Australian industry association representing companies which explore and produce oil and gas in Australia, represents 98% of the oil and gas producers in Australia, a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent as well as the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
The Australia mining law governs the exploration and extraction of minerals, a naturally occurring solid chemical substance formed through biogeochemical processes, having characteristic chemical composition, highly ordered atomic structure, and specific physical properties, and petroleum or crude oil, a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth’s surface. It differs substantially from the mining laws of other common law countries, the most important differences arising from the policy decision that the Crown, a corporation sole that in the Commonwealth realms and any provincial or state subdivisions thereof represents the legal embodiment of governance, whether executive, legislative, or judicial, should own all minerals.
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