Wills – What Is Intestacy?

When a person dies without having made a valid Will, intestacy will be the condition that is imposed on their estate. It only applies if the estate is worth more than any debts and funeral expenses. There can also be something called partial intestacy where such a Will has been made but only part of it is seen to be valid.

In England and Wales, the intestacy rules are supplemented by the discretionary provisions in the Inheritance (Provision for Family and Dependants) Act 1975 so that a fair provision is made for any dependent spouse, partner or other relative, where the strict divisions of the intestacy rules has resulted in an unfair outcome. Children who should be entitled to some of the deceased estate because they are disabled or financially dependent on the deceased at the time of death, but were not included in the intestacy rules, will then be able to claim for a fair provision. If a person dies without having made a Will and has no heirs, the persons estate will usually then be legally assigned to the crown. In some exceptional cases, a discretionary distribution will be made by the crown that would otherwise be without entitlement under strict application of the rules of inheritance.

The rules of succession in relation to the Intestacy Rules are set out in the Administration of Estates Act and other associated legislation. It sets out the order of which the property will be distributed of the deceased estate. For persons with surviving children and an estate that comes below the 250,000, the surviving spouse will receive the whole estate. If someone dies with no surviving children but close relatives who are still alive, such as brothers and sister or parents, the first 450,000 will go to the surviving spouse or civil partner. In these situations the transfers will be exempt from inheritance tax. In estates that are larger than the above thresholds, the spouse will not receive the entire estate where the deceased has other blood relatives still alive. Generally what will happen is that the surviving spouse will receive all property passing to them through survivorship (therefore they owned property as joint tenants). They will also receive all property that has passed to them under the terms of a trust, for example in a life insurance policy or pension scheme as well as they will be entitled to any statutory legacy of a fixed sum (it will be larger if the deceased had no surviving children). A surviving spouse will be entitled to a life interest in half of the remaining estate. Any children who are left of the deceased will be entitled to half of the estate that is remaining and be entitled to the other half on the death of the surviving spouse.

I am a legal writer covering advice on topics of law, for further text and similar works visit Wills or contact a solicitor today.

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Attack on Gay Couple Spurs New Philly Hate Crime Law

Philadelphia is adding increased penalties for hate crimes based on sexual orientation and gender identity after a gay couple was attacked in September. According to The Associated Press, prosecutors claim they couldn’t charge the three assailants with a hate crime because “sexual orientation isn’t covered in the state’s hate crime……

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Get Bankruptcy Help from a Bankruptcy Attorney

Times are tough and many people are feeling the pinch with jobs being lost, wages being cut, and generally just being in an economic rut.  It is easy when you are going to through such a time to feel all alone, like you are the only person in the world going through this, but rest assured that you are not.  If you have been searching for a solution but have not yet found one, you are also not alone.  If Phoenix bankruptcy is truly your only option, there are people who can help.  This is a path that has been walked down countless times before and there are professionals that are ready and willing to help you through this difficult time.


An Arizona bankruptcy attorney can help you understand the laws that are associated with the next steps that you have to take.  Bankruptcy is not something that you should take lightly, and this is why you need to make sure that it is done right.  Most people don’t know how to navigate through legal waters alone and this is what your attorney is there for.


To hire an attorney you may want to contact other people that you know who have been through this process, as they may be able to recommend a reputable professional for you to work with or they may even be able to tell you who to steer clear of!  If you do not know anyone or don’t feel comfortable asking, you can look in your local phone books for the names and numbers of local attorneys.  Most will be willing to meet with you for free for a short period of time, which will give you an idea of whether or not this is someone you can work with.


It’s important to remember that Arizona bankruptcy lawyers are going to cost you money, but most of the are willing to accept monthly payments.  Depending on the extent of the work they will have to do on your behalf, they may require a retainer, which is basically a deposit, which can be as much as $ 1,500 but then this is in your account and debited against as you go along and after this is gone you may have to make another deposit or pay monthly bills.  Usually these lawyers are very understanding when you don’t have a lot of cash laying around and will work with you to make their services as affordable as possible.


Bankruptcy is a stressful process, but when you are working with someone who knows the systems and can help guide you through all of the decisions, paperwork, and processes it will be a lot less stressful.  In the end, the money that you will have to spend on such a lawyer will be well worth the support and guidance that you receive from them.

Caitlina Fuller is a freelance writer. If Phoenix bankruptcy is truly your only option, there are people who can help. This is a path that has been walked down countless times before and there are professionals that are ready and willing to help you through this difficult time. An Arizona bankruptcy attorney can help you understand the laws that are associated with the next steps that you have to take.

Elder Law ? The Line That Separates Palliative Care from Criminal Actions

Palliative care focuses on alleviating pain and suffering brought about by the symptoms of diseases, rather than on curing the disease itself. However, in instances where a diseases may be curable, palliative care is often employed in conjunction with other treatments.

The main issue that arises from palliative care is when the opinion of medical professionals differ greatly from what a patient’s family believes to be appropriate. This is especially true when a family wants the patient to undergo more medical treatment even if the patient is ineligible for such. Moreover, the situation gets worse when the patients enters a state of emergency where the doctor would have to override some family wishes in order to save a life.

For example, an elderly person got into an accident at home. The elderly person fell off of the stairs which resulted in numerous skin lacerations and broken bones. Furthermore, head trauma was present, thereby making it mandatory to maintain the elderly person’s consciousness to lessen the risk of coma.

The patient was sent to the emergency room almost dead, and the doctor knows that he has less than ten seconds to make a decision or else the patient may die or suffer irreparable neural damage. Thus, the doctor decided to administer a dangerous drug X in order to relieve the intense pain that the patient is feeling, just so that the patient will not faint and go in a state of coma. However it was found out that this move caused massive side effects on the patient, causes the elderly patient to die right away.

This sounds like medical malpractice at first glance. However, for something to be a criminal act, two elements must be present: malicious intent and recklessness on the doctor’s part.

However, these two things are not present in such a scenario. Malice was not there because there is no legitimate motive to begin with – the doctor had all the intention to heal the patient. Second, recklessness was not there too, because the doctor just had to make a split second decision with scant information because of the urgency of the situation.

However, this is something that we, average person, do not know. Hence, there have been many lawsuits which turn out to be a sheer waste of time.

Along with beliving in humane care, Sammi uses this principle around her home. That is why she uses the rat zapper 2000 and the rat zapper ultra to take care of all of any rodents that may wander in. These affordable, reusable electronic zapper devices will humanely kill any rat or mice which wonder inside as they look for food.

Bankruptcy In Rockford

Rockford has been one of the worse areas affected by the perfect economic storm that has been unrelenting for the last two years. Rockford bankruptcy lawyers are doing more business year to date. Average Rockford bankruptcy lawyers have full waiting rooms and more calling every day.

Finding Rockford bankruptcy lawyers ready and willing to help is not hard. And help they are doing. Each time a lawyer can get debtors and creditors to settle their debts it is a small step in helping to stabilize the local economy. And this economy is in very bad shape, one of the worst in the nation.

Most people find themselves in economic trouble in a sudden manner. A job is lost, their are unexpected medical bills or maybe even credit cards have raised their interest rates. Maybe all these happen at once, sending their personal finances into a downward spiral. They do not take the time to examine their finances in a critical way, until it is too late.

Then the start for a lawyer begins. Sometimes it is a frantic search, depending on how bad their finances have become.

Most people will start by asking relatives or friends for referrals. Often they are surprised by the fact that so many that they know well have had to reorganize their finances. Most people do not brag about a bad financial state.

If friends and relatives have been lucky or smart, then turn to the internet. There there is plenty of information on lawyers. Search out a few and begin calling.

Prepare an interview for them. Yes, an interview. You need to be in charge of your financial destiny. Nobody cares more about your situation than you.

You must be your own best advocate.

Your lawyer may advise that you to file a Chapter 7 or Chapter 13 consumer bankruptcy, or your advice may be more simple, such as getting on a budget and paying off your creditors.

For experienced, knowledgeable and trustworthy bankruptcy assistance, contact the attorneys from www.legalhelpers.com. Call toll-free 800-260-1402 today for your initial free consultation or come into one of their 100 offices across the country.

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Bankruptcy Considerations

When considering filing for personal bankruptcy, you need to consult with Southgate bankruptcy lawyers. While you do not need to hire lawyers for bankruptcy, Southgate bankruptcy lawyers definitely help. Southgate bankruptcy lawyers understand that bankruptcy is a federal process.

The constitution of the United States of America provides bankruptcy as a federal right for all Americans. It is done in federal courts. In the state of Michigan, you can file for bankruptcy in either the Eastern Michigan Bankruptcy District o the Western Michigan Bankruptcy District. Which depends on what part of the state you live in. However, state laws also apply to bankruptcy.

For example, the state of Michigan has its own list of bankruptcy exemptions particular to that state. There is also a list of federal bankruptcy exemptions. When filing for personal bankruptcy in the state of Michigan, you choose between using the state bankruptcy exemption list and the federal bankruptcy exemption list. If you choose the state bankruptcy exemption list, you can also use supplemental federal bankruptcy exemptions.

You will also need to decide whether to file for chapter 7 personal bankruptcy or chapter 13 personal bankruptcy. Chapter 7 involves a court-appointed trustee helping you to liquidate your nonexempt property in order to repay you debts. Chapter 13 reorganizes your debts into a three to five year repayment plan.

At any point during your bankruptcy, so long as you have not switched over once before and are eligible for both, you can switch from chapter 7 to chapter 13 or from chapter 13 to chapter 7. Chapter 7 stays on you credit report for 10 years while chapter 13 stays on your credit report for 7 years.

Which exemptions you use and which type of bankruptcy to file depends upon the particulars of your case. Southgate bankruptcy lawyers will know best how to proceed, what exemptions to use, and what type of bankruptcy to file for.

For experienced, knowledgeable and trustworthy bankruptcy assistance, contact the attorneys from www.legalhelpers.com. Call toll-free 800-260-1402 today for your initial free consultation or come into one of their 100 offices across the country.

Use of Land Trusts in Real Estate

Land trusts are an excellent tool in the investors arsenal, but the investor must be savvy enough to fully utilize the trusts benefits. Not only will the trust provide the investor the desired level of anonymity, but if used in conjunction with an LLC, it will afford the investor excellent asset protection. L- trusts are not-for-profit corporations designed to protect land from development, using conservation easements, gifts or purchases of land, limited development, conservation buyers, or promotion of existing local, state, or Federal easement programs. The Maryland Environmental Trust (MET) assists citizen groups in the formation and operation of local l- trusts by offering training, technical assistance, administrative grants and real estate acquisition loans, through membership in the Maryland Land Trust Alliance (MLTA) , an informal association of national, state, regional and local land conservation organizations working in Maryland. L-trusts are known to use emotion-laden sales pitches, misinformation and generalities to cover the warts and wrinkles of their product. They operate in a peculiarly self-centered fantasy world where tax subsidies, political whim and legislative skullduggery distort the law and economic reality.

Land trusts are also in place to protect farmland and ranchland. Despite the use of the term “trust,” many if not most l- trusts are not technically trusts, but rather non-profit organizations that hold simple title to land and/or other property and manage it in a manner consistent with their non-profit mission. Land trusts are revocable, and may be changed, modified, or terminated while the trustee is still alive. An uncooperative trustee may be removed. L- Trusts are often established when a property has multiple owners. In these cases, the individuals named in the trust agreement are assigned the power of direction.

Land trusts are not government agencies, which is lucky, because the Supreme Court has not been supporting agencies. Corps of Engineers recently refused the conversion of an inland seasonal wetland, habitat for migratory birds, into a solid waste dumpsite. L- trusts are often nonprofit conservation organizations and acquire land through donations. Though we are losing land at 3,000 acres per day , land trusts in the United States have been increasing at 23% a year . L- trusts are one of the most popular vehicles in which to take title to real estate. Ask any experienced real estate investor and he probably has used this vehicle or has heard of its benefits.

Land trusts are unique because the duties and powers of the trustee are limited, but they are still considered to be trusts and generally are governed by the principles that are applicable to all other trusts. In which control is accomplished by serving a Notice of Collateral Assignment on the land trustee and obtaining a written receipt from the land trustee). L- trusts are the fastest growing conservation movement today, with new land trusts forming at an average rate of more than one per week. America’s 1,500 plus land trusts protect millions of acres of farms, ranches, wetlands, wildlife habitat, urban parks, forests, watersheds, coastlines and river corridors. Land trusts are public, nonprofit organizations that work cooperatively with landowners and government agencies to conserve land that has natural, historic, productive, scenic, or recreational value. They protect land permanently by negotiating agreements with property owners who want to place limits on the future uses or development potential of their property.

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Special Beneficiary Provisions Containing Trusts

There are many situations where you may want to provide for your family after your death with their inheritance held in a Trust. These special Trusts are part of the beneficiary clause of your Trust or Will. The following are some examples of commonly used special beneficiary Trusts:


You can leave a bequest in a Trust to be used to pay for the support and education of your beneficiary (example: grandchild). Once the grandchild reaches a designated age such as 25 years old, he/she could receive the balance outright. Under the terms of the Trust, the Trustee can be granted the authority to provide for your beneficiary’s health, education, welfare and comfort.

Unlike an account created under the Uniform Transfers to Minors Act (UTMA Account) which must be turned over to the child at age 21, with a Trust, you can set any age you wish for when the funds must be turned over to the child. Also, with a UTMA account, you can only appoint one custodian to manage the funds. With a Trust, you can appoint multiple Trustees and Successor Trustees. Also, with a Trust, you can restrict when funds may be spent on the child. For example, you could limit distributions to education expenses.


You can leave a bequest in a Trust to be used to support and pay expenses of a family member such as an adult child. This is often used when a child does not handle money well and would squander his/her inheritance. Such a Trust would have the Trustee be the caretaker of the funds and use discretion as to when and how the funds should be spent. You can designate a certain age when the funds must be turned over outright to your child, or you can direct that the Trust continue for his/her lifetime. You can also designate who you want to inherit the remaining balance of the Trust after your child dies.


You can leave assets in a Trust where the beneficiary would receive all of the income earned on Trust assets, but the principal would remain in the Trust. Upon the death of the beneficiary, the balance would then go to whomever you have designated. This type of Trust is often used in a second marriage situation where you want to provide for your spouse, but on his/her death, the balance would then go back to your own children.


If you have a family member with disabilities who is receiving government benefits, you can leave your assets in a Trust for him/her which would be used to supplement the government benefits but not replace those benefits. Such a Trust, if written properly, would not be deemed to be an asset of the person with disabilities and therefore would not cause him/her to lose government benefits.

The Koldin Law Center, P.C. is available to review your family situation and help you decide if one of these special beneficiary Trusts would be advisable for you.

Is It Legal to Fight Back If Someone Hits You First?

No one (or at least anyone in their right mind) goes around looking for a fight. But sometimes, whether you’re looking for it a not, a physical confrontation may find you. If you find yourself the victim of an assault, what can you do to defend yourself without also……

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Estate Planning & Retirement Planning

Should you wish to live your own retirement age using the same lifestyle you lived your youth you need to develop a perfect financial panning. This particular planning is better effective, if you start off your steps earlier. The quicker you realize that there is a tomorrow the places you will need a good support, the higher quality is the system. Start out as small as you can. Retirement doesn’t indicate living old. It means living peacefully along with happily. The earlier you begin the savings on the way to your final years support, the more effective relaxed and happier you might be.

 The only way many will benefit you actually is if you no doubt know exactly what you wish to achieve with your golden a long time, and have a strategy in place to do that. Therefore, in order to compare retirement planning software package, simply pre-plan a plan that you like to achieve for the retirement, and find out that software might be best for you. Try these tips, and you will be capable to live a dream way of living youve constantly wanted in the golden yrs.

 If you help an employer that promises benefit deals, there is a pretty good possibility they may give you a 401(k) with some style of employer match up. If so, it might be wise that you begin giving the maximum amount possible right away. When you think you might miss the funds in your salary, the truth is that you will adjust easily because this budgets are taken out before it is deposited in your account.

 Decision: What volume of control does one (the employer) motivation? What flexibleness do you wish to get for your staff in terms of cashing out the company efforts?

 Planning for your retirement is something you’ll carry out throughout most of your life (ideally!) A retirement plan is more than figuring out how you is going to live out an individual’s golden many years once you’ve stopped working  it’s also a easy way figure out your own finances as well as improve your entire money management.

 So if you haven’t a hint on how to generate a retirement plan (or maybe troubled together with the mentioned challenges), go see some sort of services company today.

 It is a good option to complete your own vital accountabilities as the main earning member of your house when you retire. The commitments may include schooling your children, marital relationship of your children, setting aside money for their along with your health, etcetera.

 Financial planning for retirement is dependent a lot upon balancing chance and reward. Any choice you do will probably carry certain element of chance and naturally the larger the rate regarding reward the higher the component of danger will be. This kind of risk is really what investors will need to fight utilizing every day. May the money in paying pay off along making also the same quantity or more income?

 But however much you imagine you will need to stay comfortably around retirement, there is one important thing on which specialists agree. The amount of your income you must save for ones retirement depends on how old you are when you start keeping. The earlier you start, the better off you’ll be.

 Living with a low retirement income can often be difficult enough a couple of. But when one particular partner perishes, finances may tighten all the more for the making it through spouse. Married couples often overlook to take into account some sort of spouse’s passing away when planning its retirement income, points out particular finance expert Alice Bryant Quinn. You actually each will need to think about just how much income you would include if your husband or wife dies whenever you retire. When it comes to purchasing a pension selection, select a joint-and-survivor pension plan. You will attain lower premiums, but different from a single-life retirement living that finishes when you cease to live, your spouse will continue to receive benefits. Additionally, the more you wait to get Social Security and safety retirement benefits around age 60 to 70, the more ones monthly benefit will be. Whenever you die, your husband or wife will also obtain a higher widow’s as well as widower’s benefit

The Retirement Group educates corporate employees that are transitioning or retiring with Hewitt Resources.

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